「夜には一気に世界が変わる」台風15号・猛烈な風雨のあとは土砂災害に警戒!

「夜には一気に世界が変わる」…気象庁から、こんな強い言葉が発せられました。台風15号が強い勢力のまま関東に上陸し、関東を中心に広い地域に猛烈な雨を降らせました。今もまだ雨が降り続いている地域もあります。土壌には大量の水が含まれていますので、土砂災害には十分に警戒してください。情報をチェックし、早め早めの行動を心がけてください。

日本の国土には傾斜が急な場所が多いため、他国よりも土砂災害が発生しやすい環境にあります。地震などにより、土砂崩れの危険性も高くなりますのでさらに注意が必要です。今回は土砂災害について基礎的な情報をまとめてみました。ご参考ください。

土砂災害の発生件数

土砂災害の危険性が高い場所は、土砂や砂礫などの流出を防ぐための砂防設備が整えられています。とはいえ、それにより全ての土砂災害を防げるわけではありません。2013年には941件、2014年には1,184件もの土砂災害が発生しています。

2014年8月20日、広島県広島市で発生した土砂災害の被災者は、書籍『平成26年8月20日 広島豪雨災害 体験談集』(発行:公益社団法人 砂防学会2014年8月広島大規模土砂災害緊急調査団)の中で「玄関を突き破り土砂が流入してきていた」「一瞬のうちに身体が流され柱にぶつかった」などのように土砂災害を表現していました。この言葉からも分かるように、土砂災害が発生すると避難する時間はほとんどありません。わずか数分で家屋や命を奪ってしまうのです。

危険な場所・避難先を知っておきましょう

土砂災害の被害を防ぐためには、あらかじめ情報を入手しておく必要があります。国土交通省が発表している「各都道府県が公開している土砂災害危険箇所と土砂災害警戒区域」に、自宅や勤務先などが含まれていないか確認しておきましょう。

豪雨や長雨が予想される場合、気象庁が発表している「土砂災害警戒情報」を確認する必要があります。該当する地域の土砂災害警戒情報が発表されていたら、素早く避難しなければなりません。自宅や勤務先などの付近にある避難場所を前もって調べておき、有事の際、迷わず避難できるようにしておきましょう。

土砂災害の可能性がある場所に自宅や勤務先などがある方は、豪雨や長雨などの際、危険が迫る前に避難しなければなりません。土砂災害は自然現象が原因であるため、発生を事前に予測することはなかなか難しいと言えますが、前兆を察知することはできます。

土砂災害の前兆とは?

土砂災害とは、豪雨・長雨・地震などを原因とした崖崩れ、地滑り、土石流による災害のことで、発生する際、前兆となる現象が見られる場合もあります。

*崖崩れの際に起こりやすい現象
・湧き水の増加や濁り
・小石の落下
・崖に発生する亀裂

*地滑りの際に起こりやすい現象
・井戸水の濁り
・地鳴りや山鳴り
・地面に発生する亀裂

*土石流の際に起こりやすい現象
・河川の濁りや水位の低下
・山鳴り
・流木や転石の音の発生

このような現象に気付いたら、すぐに避難場所に移動しましょう。

ただし、夜間や雨量が多い場合など、これらの前兆に気付きにくいことも考えられます。また、土砂災害が発生する際、必ずしも前兆となる現象が見られるわけではありません。

被害を防ぐためにも、日ごろから付近の土砂災害危険箇所などを調べておき、気象庁が大雨警報を発令した際には、さらに雨量が増えることを見越して、早めに避難するようにしてください。

photo-dosha-002
2009年2月、山形県鶴岡市で発生した地滑り災害の際には、市内各所の地面に亀裂が見られた。写真提供:一般財団法人 消防科学総合センター(http://www.isad.or.jp/

 

<<参考>>

▼各都道府県が公開している土砂災害危険箇所と土砂災害警戒区域
http://www.mlit.go.jp/river/sabo/link_dosya_kiken.html

▼土砂災害警戒情報
http://www.jma.go.jp/jp/dosha/

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