全国各地でクマ目撃情報が多発!クマに襲われないためにはどうすればいい?

栃木をはじめ、広島・山梨・北海道・・・各地でクマの目撃情報や被害情報が増えています。農作物への被害だけでなく、民家への侵入などの報告も増えてきていますので注意が必要です。クマの目撃情報や被害情報が報道され、中にはクマと闘った人の紹介などもありますが、クマはそう簡単に勝てる相手ではありません。とても恐ろしい事件を引き起こし、多くの人命を奪った例もあります。


クマによる農作物への被害、森林(林業)への被害は以前から問題視されていますが、特にインパクトが大きいのは人への被害です。クマに襲われて怪我をしたり、残念ながら命を落としたケースが少なくありません。

「クマに遭遇するのなんて、山の中だけでしょう」と思っていらっしゃる方!クマによる被害は山間部だけで起きているとは限りません。民家や田んぼ、畑など、目撃情報や度重なる被害により、各地域で警戒を呼びかける動きが強まっています。

<遭遇事故の背景について>

クマの生息地は、本来なら山深い場所といわれています。また、本来主食としているのは植物や昆虫で、春には木の新芽を、夏にはアリやハチなどの昆虫を、秋には木の実(ドングリなど)を食べています。
ところが、その主食が減っていることから食べ物を求めて行動範囲が広がり「里」に下りてくる機会が増えます。

クマの主食である木の実などが減った原因については、温暖化の影響とも言われていますが、なにはともあれ、クマが人間の生活区域にまで進出していることは事実で、通学路でクマを見た!とか、自転車に乗った人が襲われたなど、報告が後を絶ちません。

<クマとの遭遇を避けるには>

クマだって人間を襲うために出てきているわけではないのですが、お互いのためにも、クマとの遭遇は避けたいもの。どんなことに注意すればよいのでしょう?

*クマの出没情報をチェックする
・クマが出たという情報があった地域にはできる限り近寄らない
・早朝や夜間は出会う可能性が高くなるので注意する

*クマに自分の存在を知らせる
・鈴(クマ鈴)など、音が出るもので存在を知らせる

*クマがいそうな場所に注意する
・見通しの悪い場所や狭いところには注意が必要(気づくのが遅れます)
・山すその林や川沿いのやぶなどにも注意が必要(突然ばったり出会ってしまう可能性があります)

<それでもクマと出会ってしまったら…>

クマとの距離によって少し対処が変わってきます。共通して言えることは、あわてず、急な動きをしないことです。

*クマが遠いとき
・あわてず、さわがず、落ち着いてその場から離れる
・大声を出したり、走ったりしないこと
・写真を撮るなどの行為は慎む(特にフラッシュ厳禁)

*クマとの距離が近いとき
・落ち着いて、ゆっくりとその場から離れる。その際、クマに背を向けずに、クマを見ながら、ゆっくり落ち着いて後退すること

*クマとの距離がかなり近いとき
・急な動作に驚いて攻撃してくる可能性があるため、絶対にあわてず冷静に、クマが立ち去ってからその場を離れる

<まとめ>

クマが人里に下りてきているのは人を襲うのが目的ではなく、気候変動による食べ物の不足や開発などによる生息地域の圧迫が原因と考えられています。
クマも自然の一部で、生態系の中で大きな役割を担っています。今の環境下で人もクマもお互い圧迫しあうことなく生きていくためにはどうすれば良いのか、これからの課題として考えていく必要がありそうです。

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