【災害時の知識・火災】避難のポイントをおさえておきましょう

災害が起こったとき、まずはご自身で自分のみを守る行動「自助」が重要になります。防災に関するコラムでは、この「自助」に役立つ情報を共有したいと思います。まずは「火災時の対応」について、ポイントをおさえておきましょう。

■火災時の行動と優先事項

火災を発見したときにとるべき行動は「通報」「消火」「避難(避難誘導)」の3つがあります。この3つのうち、どの行動を優先するかについては、シチュエーションやご自身が置かれている立場、火災の状況などにもよりますが、判断を間違えてしまうと命に関わることになってしまいます。もちろん、命を守ることが最優先ではありますが、例えば初期消火が可能な段階で避難してしまうと被害を拡大させてしまうことに。
「避難」と「消火」のどちらを優先するか判断する上で重要なことは“自分で消火できる「初期消火の限界」”を知っておくことです。

■避難について

煙を絶対に吸わない!(息を止めて避難)
火災で最も注意したいポイントは「絶対に煙を吸わない」こと。吸い込まない=息を止めて避難するのが一番ですが、もちろん、息を止めるには限界があると思いますので、自分が息を止めていられる時間をある程度は知っておくこと。例えば部屋のドアに一番遠いところから、息を止めたままドアまで移動できるか実際にやってみるなども重要になります。

煙の下にも空気がある
煙は上から下へ、層をなすようにして下がっていきますので、床の上のわずかな部分に空気が残って視界がハッキリしている可能性があります。避難の際は身を低く、床スレスレの空気が吸える体勢で。四つんばいや、ハイハイの姿勢ではまだ顔の位置が高すぎますので、床をなめるようにして(あごを床につけるくらい)、手はひじまで床につき、足だけで進むことがポイントになります。

空気を持って避難
空気が残っている部屋にいる場合は、ポリ袋など手近な密封できる袋に空気を入れ、それを吸いながら避難する方法もあります。

<留意すること>
誘導灯にしたがって避難する
防火区画が形成されたときにはどうする?
マンションの避難
避難後は絶対に戻らない!

■初期消火について

消火器
台所など、出火の危険度が高い場所に消火器を備えておくこと。
※消火器の使い方はとても簡単ですが、いざ!というときは慌てて使えなかった、というケースも多いようです。避難訓練に参加するなどして、練習しておきましょう。

水バケツ
バケツの水をかけるときは、一気にぶちまけるのではなく、コップなどを使って何度も振りかけて消火するほうが効果的です。
てんぷら油火災のときは、絶対に水をかけてはいけません。てんぷら油火災は、水をかけることによって爆発的な燃焼が起きてしまい、かえって火災を拡大させる危険性があります。

牛乳パック
冷蔵庫に入っている牛乳やジュースなども、初期消火には有効です。
牛乳パックの口が空いているほうを火元に向けて押し出すようにかけます。
※飲み終わった牛乳パックを使って、水を押し出す体験をしてみるとよいですね。

投てき水パック
落下させる、ぶつけるなどの衝撃で簡単に割れる薄い袋に水を入れ、口を縛った「投てき水パック」を備えておくことも、初期消火の手段の一つになります。消火器や水バケツで消火することが困難な方には、この手段が有効です。

■通報について

火災による死亡者は、夜間に多く発生しています。就寝している人を起こすのはかなり大変。就寝中に起こった火災は、真っ先に気づいた人が家族に火災を知らせて避難しなければなりません。一刻も早く避難しないといけない状況の中で、どのようにして寝ている人を起こすか、考えておく必要があります。


災害が起こったとき、まずは「身の安全」です。ご自身の安全・命を最優先に守る行動をとってください。そのために必要なポイントについて、今後もお伝えしていきます。

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